Monthly Vulners Review #1

The first monthly vulners review.
Main Vulners events.
Only critical and important vulnerabilities.
Some intersting tools.
The most entertaining and flashy news.


Vulners events

There have been several events for Vulners this month:

  1. The revival of the blog;
  2. Translation of research Hidden Threat – Vulnerability Analysis using the news graph from Lydia Khramova;
  3. Intergated with Exploit Pack collection, which we mentioned last week;
  4. Appearance and description of the functionality OSS-Fuzz data in Vulners.

Vulnerabilities and Exploits

Of course we start with short review ‘The second Tuesday from Microsoft’.

This month’s Microsoft Patch Tuesday addresses 113 vulnerabilities and 19 of them – Critical.

0-day in font library

Microsoft patched two vulnerabilities (CVE-2020-0938 , CVE-2020-1020) in the Adobe Font Manager Library that were announced in March. We wrote about them at the beginning of the weekly digest #2.

For exploit these vulnerabilities, an attacker need to socially engineering, so that the user opens a malicious document or viewing the document in the Windows Preview pane.

SharePoint

If you use it, you will need to monitor for security updates. Microsoft released patches for SharePoint covering four RCE vulnerabilities (CVE-2020-0929, CVE-2020-0931, CVE-2020-0932, CVE-2020-0974). An attacker could exploit any of them by uploading a specially crafted SharePoint application package to an affected version of SharePoint. And one XSS CVE-2020-0927 that can be exploited by an authenticated attacker by sending a specially crafted request to an affected SharePoint server.

Kernel zero-day

The other zero-day is an elevation of privilege vulnerability CVE-2020-1027 in Windows kernel, discovered by the Google Project Zero team.

Hyper-V Escape

A remote code execution critical vulnerability CVE-2020-0910 is patched in Hyper-V, allowing a guest virtual machine to compromise the hypervisor, escaping from a guest virtual machine to the host.


Linux

HP ThinPro is a linux based operating system. This month we’re looking at two PoCs for two vulnerabilities for 6.x/7.x versions of this OS:

  1. PoC for CVE-2019-18910 Privileged Command Injection Vulnerability. The VPN does not safely handle user’s input data, it is therefore possible for an attacker to inject any commands to execute with root privileges on the device. https://vulners.com/zdt/1337DAY-ID-34147
  2. PoC for CVE-2019-16286 Filter Bypass Attackers can btpass the restrictions that administrators set to run users’s applications to launch restricted applications and execute arbitrary commands on the device. https://vulners.com/packetstorm/PACKETSTORM:156898

Centos Web panel
CWP is a free Web Hosting control panel designed for quick and easy management of (Dedicated & VPS) servers. CVE-2020-10230 or SQL injection in Centos Web Panel 7 and 6 via the /cwp_{SESSION_HASH}/admin/loader_ajax.php term parameter.

Apache

CVE-2020-1934 AND CVE-2020-1927 are some of the most popular vulnerabilities in the month.Vulnerable versions 2.4.x < 2.4.42. As history shows: If you find exploit for one of them, you will soon read about it in attacking news.

  • CVE-2020-1934: mod_proxy_ftp may use uninitialized memory when proxying to a malicious FTP server;
  • CVE-2020-1927: redirects via mod_rewrite l might be fooled by encoded newlines and redirect instead to an unexpected (malicious) URL.

Exploit for Apache Solr <8.3.0 / CVE-2019-17558
Apache Solr is an open-source enterprise-search platform, written in Java, from the Apache Lucene project. Solr can run as a standalone full text search server.

Metasploit module allows RCE via custom Velocity remplate. After identifying a list of Solr core names an attacker can send a specially crafted HTTP POST request to the Config API. Enabling resource loader in the solrconfig.xml file to true allow an attacker to use the Velocity template parameter in a specially crafted Solr request, leading to RCE. Currently, this module only supports Solr basic authentication

Java

Nexus Repository Manager
RCE in Nexus <3.21.2 – CVE-2020-10199. Nexus is a very popular repository manager from Sonatype. It allows you to raise such a small Maven Central within your project.

https://vulners.com/github/GHSA-G2F6-V5QH-H2MQ

Metasploit module exploits a Java Expression Language (EL) injection in Nexus Repository Manager to execute code like Nexus user. It is a post-authentication vulnerability, so credentials are required to exploit it. Any user regardless of privilege level may be used

Liferay Portal < 7.2.1
Liferay Portal is an open-source solution designed for centralized access to several different corporate applications in one place. Exploit for CVE-2020-7961 allows to execute remote arbitary code via JSON web services (JSONWS).

PHP

PlaySMS
PlaySMS is a free and open source SMS management software and in th version <1.4.3 does not sanitize inputs from a malicious string. The TPL(https://github.com/antonraharja/tpl) template language is vulnerable to PHP code injection. The vulnerability is triggered when an attacker provides a username with a malicious payload. This malicious payload stored in the TPL template, which when re-rendered leads to code execution.

Exploit tested on the machine from Hack the box (Forlic): https://vulners.com/metasploit/MSF:EXPLOIT/MULTI/HTTP/PLAYSMS_TEMPLATE_INJECTION

Horde CVE-2020-8518
Horde Groupware Webmail Edition 5.2.22 allows injection of arbitrary PHP code via CSV data, iCalendar, vCard, etc., leading to remote code execution. Vulnerability allows authenticated users to inject arbitrary PHP code thus achieving remote code execution the server hosting the web application.

Exploit: https://vulners.com/zdt/1337DAY-ID-34133

ThinkPHP – two in one combo
ThinkPHP is a open-source PHP framework. The metasploit module contains CVE-218-20062 and CVE-2018-9082 and use one of them for code injection as the web user. The module will automatically attempt to detect the version of the software.


TOOLS

In this part, we will list the most popular tools of the month that have just appeared or received an update.

Pentest

Mssqlproxy

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mssqlproxy is a toolkit for lateral movement through a compromised Microsoft SQL Server via socket reuse. The client requires impacket and sysadmin privileges on the SQL server.

Attacks on industrial MS SQL are not common. This attacking attack technique is used by advanced attackers. It is not surprising that someone came up with and wrote a kind of reverse proxy

Detailed report about MS SQL CLR (check presentaition in the video description): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gydeYfyG_xY
Other nice research about this theme: https://blog.netspi.com/attacking-sql-server-clr-assemblies

Puma Security Serverless Prey

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Serverless Prey is a collection of serverless functions (FaaS), that, once launched to a cloud environment and invoked, establish a TCP reverse shell, enabling the user to introspect the underlying container. Usually attackers develop custom tools of this kind or significantly modify existing ones.

Jackdaw – Tool To Collect All Information In Your Domain And Show You Nice Graphs
Look for description Vulners weekly digest #3

RECON

Project iKy v2.4.0

The utility and functionality of the tool is in doubt. According to the authors this tool to collect information from an email and shows results in a visual interface

Git-Hound
Look for description at Vulners weekly digest #4

uDork – Google Hacking Tool
Look for description Vulners weekly digest #1

Purple teaming

It’s a good idea to check the sensational exploit and write new correlation rules: CVE-2020-0796 Windows SMBv3 LPE Exploit

Audix

_______       _____________          
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___    |___  _______  /__(_)___  __  
__  /| |  / / /  __  /__  /__  |/_/  
_  ___ / /_/ // /_/ / _  / __>  <    
/_/  |_\__,_/ \__,_/  /_/  /_/|_| 
Automation for Windows Event Audit Policies for monitoring & incident response.

https://vulners.com/kitploit/KITPLOIT:2268350346393093680

SauronEye


Look at Vulners weekly digest #3


News

Monthly rockstarts: COVID-19, Trickbot and ZOOM

COVID-19 and attacks

Attacks on hospitals were detected between 24 and 26 March and were initiated as part of coronavirus-related phishing campaigns that have become widespread in recent months.

The disclosure from Palo Alto Networks comes as cyber attacks have been hit in the past few weeks by the US Department of health and human services (HHS), biotech firm 10x Genomics, Brno University hospital in the Czech Republic and Hammersmith Medicines Research.

The theme of the pandemic and COVID-19 is an ideal target for the threat actors and cybercrime will go to any extent, including targeting organizations that are in the front lines and responding to the pandemic on a daily basis.

https://vulners.com/thn/THN:8007E43933D6EA07FB6E74E9DCC5FA70

Ransomware and Trickbot

The emails, sent from a spoofed WHO email address (noreply@who[.]int), contained a text format (RTF) file that purported to spread information about the pandemic. When opened, the RTF file attempted to deliver a ransomware payload that exploits a known vulnerability (CVE-2012-0158) in Microsoft Office, which allows attackers to execute arbitrary code.

When opened, the malicious attachment drops a ransomware binary to the victim’s disk and then executes it.

The ransomware binary then encrypts various files extensions, including “.DOC”, “.ZIP”, “.PPT” and more. Some hospitals have been targeted by the Ryuk ransomware, according to security researcher “PeterM” on Twitter:

Attackers will continue to use CAVID-19 theme for cyber attacks due to the global pandemic scare – including malware attacks, malicious URLS, and identity fraud.

https://vulners.com/threatpost/THREATPOST:FF75AF79B23F8B0D0CF546FC055B7911

ZOOM 🙂

Two zero-day vulnerabilities were discovered for the Zoom video conferencing platform, which will allow threat actors to spy on people’s private video conferences and additionally use the target system.

One of the 0-day vulnerabilities relates to the ZOOM client under Windows and allows remote code execution in the attacked system, but can only be used in conjunction with other existing errors. For data about this hole, hackers ask for 500 thousand dollars, but, according to experts, this price is inflated by half.

The second 0-day vulnerability is present in ZOOM under Mac, but does not lead to remote code execution. Accordingly, its value is much less.

In our lasin our last 2 reviews, we have already written about the achievements of ZOOM 🙂

Vulners weekly digest #4

Your Exchange server stills sweety and other vulnerabilities.
Serious boost for pentest frameworks.
ZOOM continues to smoke and we continue write about it in our digest.


EXPLOITS and vulnerabilities

“If You Can’t Patch Your Email Server, You Should Not Be Running It”

CVE-2020-0688 becomes pupular. While the flaw was fixed as part of Microsoft’s February Patch Tuesday updates, researchers warned in a March advisory that unpatched servers are being exploited by APT actors. In one of the latest research from the RAPID7, it is reported that Exchange servers are still vulnerable to CVE-2020-0688. Researches observed attackers leverage the flaw to run system commands to conduct recon, deploy webshell backdoors and execute fileless frameworks for post-exploitation.

The exploit code that researchers from RAPID7 tested attempts show up in the Windows Application event log with source MSExchange Control Panel, level Error, and event ID 4. This log entry will include the compromised user account and long error message that includes thetext Invalid viewstate.

You can also review your IIS logs for requests to a path under /ecp (usually /ecp/default.aspx), which contain the string __VIEWSTATE and __VIEWSTATEGENERATOR. The long string in the middle of this request, as in the case of the Windows event log above, is a portion of the exploit payload. You will see the username of the compromised account name at the end of the log entry.

The update for CVE-2020-0688 should be installed on any mail server with the Exchange.

https://vulners.com/threatpost/THREATPOST:DF7C78725F19B2637603E423E56656D4

Video: https://youtu.be/7d_HoQ0LVy8

Vesta Control Panel Authenticated RCE

The vulnerability (CVE-2020-10808) was disclosed and fixed in late April. At the same time created pull request in metasploit repo. Vesta Control Panel is one of the most popular, simple and convenient panels for managing websites. Vesta Control Panel (VestaCP) through 0.9.8-26 allows Command Injection via the schedule/backup Backup Listing Endpoint.
The point of vulnerability is that an authenticated attacker with a low privileges can inject a payload in the file name starts with dot.

More detailed technical description with video POC: https://pentest.blog/vesta-control-panel-second-order-remote-code-execution-0day-step-by-step-analysis

LimeSurvey CVE-2020-11456

An open-source simple tool which you can install on your server for compile custom templates for surveys. You can use this tool to create custom templates for surveys using formatted text with image/video integration. LimeSurvey before 4.1.12+200324 has stored XSS in application/views/admin/surveysgroups/surveySettings.php and application/models/SurveysGroups.php

PoC: https://vulners.com/exploitdb/EDB-ID:48289


Tools

GitHound

GitHound v1.1 helps to find sensitive information across all of GitHub, uploaded by any user. According to the author, this tool helped him earn money 🙂 Cool tool for Bug Bounty Hunters.

SSHPry

What if we’ll have a tool that can show us a terminal of active SSH connection? and… maybe… control it? Record it? Investigate?

Author of SSHPry 2.0 implemented technique to get ALL read() strings of connected ssh client in SSHPry.py script that mirrors a terminal of connected SSH client.

Main features:

  • Control of target’s TTY
  • Built-In Keylogger
  • Console-Level phishing
  • Record & Replay previous sessions

The video better shows the functionality of the tool:

Ps-Tools

Have you ever needed to use tool like Process Explorer in your shell session? Ps-Tools provides such an opportunity. Why this if the same thing can be done through powershell? Powershell is currently under heavy security monitoring. The authors mention only Cobalt Strike in their research, but you can use it in any framework. For example: detects any security solutions (AV, EDR, etc.), collect more detailed information for compromise system or finding more opportunities for lateral movement.

This functional helps to better understand the systems and IT infrastructure from your target and periodically polling of this information allows a Red Team to react on possible changes within the IT environment (an investigation trigger, for example). Purple Teams should test it to develop new detection rules. It is assumed that this new functionality will be used in the most advanced penetration tests.


dangerous remote work

Due to the pandemic, many organizations began to work remotely. In this regard, APT groups increased their activity through phishing/spearfishing, using the COVID-19 context, and attempts to exploit zero-day vulnerabilities in many tools for remote work: video conferences, VPNs, remote acess tools and etc.

An April analysis from Kaspersky uncovered a total of 120,000 suspicious malware and adware packages in the wild masquerading as versions of the video calling app. The research found that among a total of 1,300 suspicious files not using the Skype name, 42 percent were disguised as Zoom, followed by WebEx (22 percent), GoToMeeting (13 percent), Flock (11 percent) and Slack (11 percent).

https://vulners.com/threatpost/THREATPOST:F3563336B135A1D7C1251AE54FDC6286

Example: Cisco ‘Critical Update’ Phishing Attack Steals Webex Credentials

CVE-2016-9223, a legitimate vulnerability in CloudCenter Orchestrator Docker Engine, which is Cisco management tool for applications in multiple data-center, private-cloud and public-cloud environments. This critical flaw allowed unauthenticated, remote attackers to install Docker containers with high privileges on affected systems. However, the vulnerability was fixed in the Cisco CloudCenter Orchestrator 4.6.2 patch release (also in 2016).

zoom, are you ok?

ZOOM is still the focus of a lot of news. Researchers have uncovered a database shared on an underground forum containing more than 2,300 compromised Zoom credentials. Compromised Zoom credentials could give cybercriminals access to web conference calls.

Attckers can join meeting and blast music or videos to interfere with the meeting. This practice, called “Zoom bombing,” has been spiking upwards over the past few weeks, despite the FBI cracking down on the issue and warning that those who take part in Zoom bombing could face jail time.

https://vulners.com/threatpost/THREATPOST:2FA23249E9EBD512847353C7FFC62505

Researchers warn users to stay on the lookout for bad actors spoofing web conferencing and virtual collaboration apps. In general, attackers are taking advantage of the panic around the coronavirus with phishing emails around financial relief, promises of a cure and symptom information details.

Vulners weekly digest #3

Weekly overview of new vulnerabilities, exploits, tools and other news from the world of information security.

Vulners has officially integrated with EXPLOITPACK on this week. Now customers can get even more information centrally about the required vulnerabilities

All interest in the difference 🙂


Exploits

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Congratulations, this week there was an exloit for CVE-2020-0796. We wrote about this vulnerability in our previous digest:

Let’s start patching and test exploits (in own labs or for detecting purposes 🙂 )

DotNetNuke

A new module for DotNetNuke (versions 5.0.0 to 9.3.0-RC) was recently added in metasploit. Vulnerable versions store user profile information in the DNNPersonalization cookie in XML format. The expected structure includes the “type” attribute to sprcify the server which type of object to create during deserialization. It happens if the DNN is configured to handle 404 errors with its built-in error page (default configuration). Attacker can use this vulnerability for remote code execution on the target system.

https://vulners.com/zdt/1337DAY-ID-34183

Redis Replication Code Execution

Vulners sets own AI score for many exploits and vulnerabilities. Thus, exploit for Redis has gained a fairly high rating and becomes more popular due to a new bug fix. Extended functionality added after Redis 4.0.0 for executing arbitrary code has become vulnerable. To transmit the given extension it makes use of the feature of Redis which called replication between master and slave.

https://vulners.com/zdt/1337DAY-ID-34165

More research about Vulners AI score: https://vulners.blog/2020/04/02/hidden-threat-vulnerability-analysis-using-the-news-graph


INFOSEC TOOLS

JACKDAW

This tool help you help to collect information about domain, store it in a SQL database and show graph. It gain a better understanding of Active Directory objects interact with each-other . Main features:

  • Data acquisition;
  • Graph building;
  • Anomlaies detection

Webkiller v2.0

Simple tool for gathering infomation. If you don’t like to understand large and intricate OSINT frameworks, you will like this tool .

Pulsar 

Pulsar is an automated framework with GUI for Red teams, pentesters and Bounty Hunters. If you like to know about full-scale and holistic tools, it will fascinate you for a long time and can become a permanent tool. This framework integrated several projects:

The full structure of the project:

SauronEye

Simple search tool to find files containing specific keywords. Main features:


ZOOM and MITRE

If coronavirus is the number one topic in IT news, then ZOOM has definitely taken the second place in recent days.

The ZOOM client, when sending a URL to an internal chat, converts it into a hyperlink. However, along with this, it also converts the UNC paths that Windows uses to access network resources to hyperlinks.

When you click on such a hyperlink, Windows uses the SMB protocol and transfers the username and NTLM hash of the user’s password to the other side. The latter can be easily opened taking into account modern computing power.

Thus, an attacker, having sent a specially formed link to the application’s internal chat, can subsequently obtain a user login and password. In addition, a command to start a local application can be sent in UNC format. True, in this case, Windows will ask permission to run.

More detailed: https://vulners.com/thn/THN:679E49F88578E2E63101319B5AB7DAAC

Based on low AI score of news about ZOOM vulnerabilities, we can conclude that most of them are hype and do not make much sense:

One of the most important events for all who try to detect APT attacks and analyse endpoint logs – MITRE Sub-Techniques (beta). The current one is still the October 2019 version.

The version of ATT&CK with sub-techniques is only in beta right now to allow enough time for feedback and for organizations to determine how to transition. We are expecting to make we make it the official version sometime in July 2020.

One good example of demonstrating the benefits of sub-techniques is T1003. The name was changed slightly to OS Credential Dumping and the technique kept:

Technique T1003
Sub-techniques of this techniques

The added granularity will allow you to represent different types of credential dumping that can happen at a more detailed level than just mapping to the broader OS Credential Dumping. MITRE’re asking for feedback on technique and sub-technique pairings as well as any additional techniques or sub-technique ideas that help organize remaining techniques without sub-techniques.

More detailed info in MITRE blog: https://medium.com/mitre-attack/attack-subs-what-you-need-to-know-99bce414ae0b

Attack matrix for Kubernetes

On this week, Microsoft crafted an ATT&CK-like matrix comprising the major techniques that are relevant to container orchestration security, with focus on Kubernetes:

Understanding the attack surface of containerized environments is the first step of building security solutions for these environments. This matrix can help organizations identify the current gaps in their defenses coverage against the different threats that target Kubernetes.

https://vulners.com/mssecure/MSSECURE:B88202FB5B97F91B4C2853079E60CFF1